Operations and Algebraic Thinking Students in Grade 4 continue to solve problems using the four operations with whole numbers. New to this grade level are problem situations that involve multiplicative comparisions. Students become familiar with factors and multiples and how they relate to prime and composite numbers. They work in a variety of contexts to generate and analyze patterns.
Numbers and Operations in Base Ten Fourth graders extend their work with place value to add and subtract multi-digit numbers using an efficient algorithm. They use strategies based on properties and place value to multiply and divide multi-digit numbers.
Numbers in Base Ten-Fractions Fourth graders apply knowledge about fractions from third grade to adding and subtracting fractions with like denominators. They begin with visual models and progress to making generalizations for addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators. They compare fractions that refer to the same whole using a variety of strategies. Using visual models and making connections to whole number multiplication supports students as they begin to explore multiplying a whole number times a fraction. In Grade 4, denominators are limited to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100. Students build equivalent fractions with denominators of 10 and 100 and connect that work to decimal notation for tenths and hundredths.
Measurement and Data Fourth graders will focus their learning on understanding the relationship between units within one system of measurement. Emphasis will be placed on solving problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, money, and area and perimeter. Students will also learn to use a protractor to measure angles and will interpret data using line plots they created.
Geometry At the fourth grade level, the study of geometry features descriptions, analysis, comparisons, and classification of two-dimensional shapes. Students will learn three important concepts and skills. First, students will draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles, and perpendicular and parallel lines. Second, two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size will be classifed. Third, students will recognize and draw a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional shape. By building, drawing, and analyzing two-dimensional shapes, students expand their knowledge of properties of two-dimensional objects and the use of them to solve problems involving symmetry.
The Common Core Mathematics Companion: The Standards Decoded Grades 3-5 (2015). Authors: Linda M. Gojack and Ruth Harbin Miles