Operations and Algebraic Thinking The major work of this domain in Grade 3 is to develop students' conceptual understanding of multiplication and division by using concrete materials to model multiplication and then relate their understanding of multiplication to division. The culminating expectation is that students will demonstrate fluency with multiplication and division within 100 using single-digit factors.
Numbers and Operations in Base Ten In Grade 3, students use place value to extend previous work in addition and subtraction to 1,000. They use number line models to develop and understanding of rounding numbers. They build on multiplication facts and understanding to multiply one-digit numbers times multiples of 10.
Numbers in Base Ten-Fractions Students use visual models, including area models, fraction strips, and the number line, to develop conceptual understanding of the meaning of a fraction as a number in relationship to a defined whole. They work with unit fractions to understand the meaning of the numerator and denominator. They build equivalent fractions and use a variety of strategies to compare fractions. In Grade 3, denominators are limited to 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8.
Measurement and Data The study of measurement in third grade will apply directly to students' daily lives. Students will learn to tell time by the minute, solve story problems with elapsed time, and become proficient in using measurement tools as they work with volume, mass, and weight. Experiences provided at this level will help students formulate questions that can be answered using data. Third graders will also connect multiplication to the area of a rectangle.
Geometry The study of geometry in third grade builds upon previous experiences from Grade 2. At this level, students will identify and draw triangles, pentagons, and hexagons and specifically concentrate on quadrilaterals. Third graders will also focus on fractions by partitioning a whole shape such as a circle or rectangle into equal parts.
The Common Core Mathematics Companion: The Standards Decoded Grades 3-5 (2015). Authors: Linda M. Gojack and Ruth Harbin Miles